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Miticides and the Life Stages They Are Most Effective On

ozzydiodude

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Miticides and the Life Stages They Are Most Effective On

Miticides and the Life Stages of Two Spotted Spider Mites They Are Most
Effective On

By Dr. Raymond A. Cloyd
Kansas State University



Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae is a major arthropod pest of many greenhousegrown crops feeding on over 300 plant species. Twospotted spider mite feeds within plant cells damaging the spongy mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and chloroplasts, which reduces chlorophyll content and the plant’s ability to photosynthesize resulting in characteristic symptoms such as leaf bleaching, yellow stippling, and bronzing of leaves.
The primary means of maintaining twospotted spider mite populations below damaging levels, in greenhouses, is the use of commercially available miticides that either have contact or translaminar activity. Miticides with contact activity include acequinocyl (Shuttle), fenbutatin-oxide (ProMite), clofentezine (Ovation), hexythiazox (Hexygon), pyridaben (Sanmite), bifenazate (Floramite), and fenpyroximate (Akari).In general, these miticides
provide minimal residual activity once spray residues have dried.However, a number of miticides have translaminar activity, which mean that the material penetrates the leaf cuticle and the active ingredient resides within the leaf tissue including the spongy mesophyll and palisade parenchyma cells, resulting in a reservoir of active ingredient. This provides extended residual activity against twospotted spider mites even after spray residues have
dried. Twospotted spider mites feeding on the leaves, even after spray residues have dissipated, may ingest a lethal dose of the active ingredient. This may lead to a decrease in the number of miticide applications thus reducing worker exposure and minimizing the potential for spider mite populations developing resistance. Miticides registered for use in greenhouses that have translaminar activity include abamectin (Avid), chlorfenapyr (Pylon),spiromesifen (Judo), spirotetramat (Kontos), and etoxazole (TetraSan).

Table 1 presents all the miticides registered for use in greenhouses and the susceptible life stages of twospotted spider mite, the activity type (e.g., contact, translaminar, or systemic), and the mode of action of each miticide. This table may assist greenhouse producers in determining which life stage miticides are most effective on. For example, four miticides are active, as indicated on the label, on all the life stages (egg, larva, nymph, and adult) of
twospotted spider mite: acequinocyl (Shuttle), bifenazate (Floramite), fenpyroximate (Akari), and pyridaben (Sanmite). Three of these miticides (Shuttle, Akari, and Sanmite) are classified as mitochondria electron transport inhibitors or METI’s. Four miticides are less active on twospotted spider mite adults: clofentezine (Ovation), etoxazole (TetraSan), hexythiazox (Hexygon), and spiromesifen (Judo). Finally, four miticides have both contact and translaminar properties: abamectin (Avid), chlorfenapyr (Pylon), etoxazole (TetraSan), spirotetramat (Kontos), and spiromesifen (Judo).

In order to effectively manage twospotted spider mite (or any mite pest) it is important that greenhouse producers identify the life stages that are affected by the currently available miticides. This will enhance the prospects of developing pesticide mixtures that make sense.

TABLE 1. MITICIDES (ACTIVE INGREDIENT AND TRADE NAME), ACTIVITY TYPE, TWOSPOTTED
SPIDER MITE SUSCEPTIBLE LIFE STAGES, AND MODE OF ACTION.


miticide%20Table%201.jpg



Certain insecticides stimulate mite reproduction. For example, spider mites exposed to carbaryl (Sevin) in the laboratory have been shown to reproduce faster than untreated populations. Carbaryl, some organophosphates, and some pyrethroids apparently also favor spider mites by increasing the level of nitrogen in leaves. Insecticides applied during hot weather usually appear to have the greatest effect, causing dramatic spider mite outbreaks within a few days.

This was originally posted by Gauno at Cannetics
 

astrobud

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i hope i dont ever have to deal with em. nasty critters
 

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