HERE IS HOW TO PRODUCE MOSTLY FEMALES FROM STANDARD SEEDS ...as written by "Strawdog" copied and submitted by mutt As a grower I always believed that the seed was genetically predisposed to its sexual orientation as soon as fertilization of the ovule took place in the female. Basically this means that if you take a single female plant and produced seeds from her that the ratios are already set in the offspring. If a gender detection test could be established the males could be separated from the females there are then. If this where true then the breeder’s packs of ten seeds per pack could easily turn out to be all males or all females because of this genetic predisposition. However this is not the case! One of the areas of my interest was in the feminized seed programs that so successfully charged through-the-roof prices on seeds that are reported to grow all females. However, as many growers here like myself have experienced - this is not always the case either! Feminized seeds work on the bases that there is a genetic predisposition for the plant to produce females because of special treatment that it gets in the selfing stages of a unique XX female. I won’t go into this in detail here because there is enough information on the process across the entire internet. Anyhow, in an optimal growing environment it is very easy to produce ALL females from these treated female plants. OPTIMAL is the key word here because in less than optimal growing conditions strange things start to happen to these feminized seeds. In a single pack of feminized seeds a grower can produce: Females. Hermaphrodites. Males. Yeah, that’s right. Males! So where are these males coming from and how are they making there way into the feminized seed process. The answer is a very simple one. Sex is not completely determined in the cannabis plant until a few weeks before flowering. We will talk about this in a moment but now back to the feminized seeds. In optimal growing conditions feminized seeds will kick out 100% females. This says a lot for growing conditions and the actual role they play on cannabis gender development. How many times have growers seen these effects of multiple genders from Feminized seeds? The answer lies clearly in how well they grow. Growers who are growing in non-stressful conditions will never see the male effect from feminized seeds and so hence it does not exist for them. However over periods time and different growing techniques the grower will eventually see these results when growing in less than optional environments. MALES! For this reason growers who choose feminized seeds should be forewarned to get their growing environments down to a T. If you prevent stress then you prevent males and hermaphrodites appearing in a feminized seed population. It is as SIMPLY AS THAT. Now onto the real topic of interest. Boosting those female to male ratios. As many growers know seed banks are not responsible for male to female ratios. If you get a pack of all males, as many of us have done, then a quick call to your seed bank can maybe help procure some good substitute freebies with your second order. However some will not go along with this. It depends on your relationship with the seed bank. Give a shot anyhow, that is my advice, but be discreet and don’t blame the seed bank or breeder. A couple of years ago Dutch Passion released an essay on how to increase mostly females from a pack of seeds. This is an excellent piece of work and has helped me to gain more of an interest in this area. In the past few years I have come to develop my own systems to get those ratios on the up and up. Right now I am very happy to report a real increase in my females from standard seeds. Sometimes as high as 90% to 95% on a consistent basis. So how is it done? I prefer standard seeds for numerous reasons. The first reason being that feminized seeds come from hermie plants. Whichever way you look at it, the specially treated plants are hermed and this trait is often expressed in the offspring where conditions are less than optimal. Even with standard seeds the hermaphrodite condition is still achievable where stress occurs. I seem to have noticed that the two most stressful conditions which can cause the hermaphrodite trait occur before flowering in the vegetative phase of growing is around the 3rd to 4th week of growth before pre-flowering when the plant undergoes either heat stress or a problem with the 24/0 or 18/6 photoperiod (whatever vegetative photoperiod choose doesn’t matter, as long as disruptions occur). Even during the initial stages of calyx development males and females are obvious side by side at the node region. This is hermaphroditism due to vegetative growth problems. In the flowering period, hermaphrodites generally occur quicker because of an irregular photoperiod than anything else and heat stress certainly helps bananas to pop up in with the bud. Now, even Sinsemilla crops will herm towards the end depending on the strain. I don’t class this as a typical case of hermaphrodites. It is just something that some strains naturally do towards the end of the Sinsemilla procedure. Anyhow for starters we better reproduce what Dutch Passion have to say about there feminized seeds first. "Feminised Cannabis Seeds" Courtesy of Dutch Passion In November 1998 we introduced our "Female Cannabis Seed". We did this after our own experiments showed that from female seed, we acquired almost 100% female off-spring. In the meantime we are six months further on . We have received a lot of feed-back from our customers. The reactions are mostly positive, clients who have successfully produced almost 100% female off-spring. However there have been reactions from customers who found a few hermaphrodites or males plants. Apparently environmental influences affect the sex of the female seeds as well. Because of the fact that Female seeds do not grow into female plants under all circumstances, we changed the name from "Female Cannabis Seeds" into "Feminised Cannabis Seeds". From literature and from our own findings it appears that the growth of a male or a female plant from seed, except for the predisposition in the gender chromosomes, also depends on various environmental factors. Not only the origination of entirely male or female plants is partly affected by these environmental factors, the number of male and female flowers on a hermaphrodite plant is affected as well. The environmental factors that influence the sex of the plant (or the flower in the case of hermaphrodites), are among other things: The quantity of nitrogen and potassium of the seedbed. Humidity and moistness of the seedbed. Level of temperatures. Colour of the light used. Length of daylight. Stress, any form of stress, makes that more male individuals will originate from seed. Even the taking of cuttings from female plants may produce male or hermaphrodite cuttings. To optimise the result, changes in one or more of the above-mentioned environmental factors for a certain period during growth, may be applied. During this time these environmental factors will deviate from the standard growing system for maximum harvest and quality, as described in nursery literature. The desired change(s) in the environmental factor(s) are started from the moment that the seedling has three pairs of real leaves (not counting the seed-lobes). This is the moment that male and/or female predisposition in florescence is being formed. After approximately two weeks the standard growing system can be reconverted to. Of the 5 above-mentioned environmental factors the first three are the most practical: 1. Level of nitrogen and potassium of the seedbed: A heightening of the standard level of nitrogen makes for more female plants originating from the seeds. A lowering of the nitrogen level shows more male plants. A heightening of the level of potassium tends to show more male plants, while a lowering of the potassium level shows more female plants. A combination of a higher nitrogen level for the period of a week or two and a lowering of the potassium level is recommended. 2. Humidity and moistness of the seedbed: a higher humidity makes for an increase in the number of female plants from seed, a lowering for an increase in male plants. The same is valid for the moistness of the seedbed. 3. Level of temperatures: lower temperatures make for a larger number of female plants, higher temperatures for more male plants. 4. Colour of light: more blue light makes for female plants from seed, more red light makes for more male plants. 5. Hours of daylight: few hours of daylight (e.g. 14 hours) makes for more female individuals, a long day (e.g. 18 hours) makes for more male plants.